Contribution of off-farm employment to income of indigenous and mestizo households in the Ecuadorian Amazon


  • Cristian Vasco Universidad Central del Ecuador
  • Richard Bilsborrow University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill



Amazon, Ecuador, off-farm employment, nonfarm employment.


This study examines the process of income diversification among indigenous and mestizo households settled in one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots. The results of a random-effect tobit model show that agricultural wage work is the principal income source for homes with scarce or no land. Self-employment employs households with low endowments of education but high endowments of capital. Non-agricultural wage income absorbs educated individuals either indigenous or mestizo.


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Author Biography

Cristian Vasco, Universidad Central del Ecuador

Facultad de Ciencias Agrícolas


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