Scientific instruments for climate change adaptation: estimating and optimizing the efficiency of ecosystem service provision

Ferdinando Villa, Ken Bagstad, Gary Johnson, Brian Voigt


Adaptation to the consequences of climate change can depend on efficient use of ecosys tem services (ES), i.e. a better use of natural services through management of the way in which they are delivered to society. While much discussion focuses on reducing consumption and increasing production of services, a lack of scientific instruments has so far prevented other mechanisms to improve ecosystem services efficiency from being addressed systematically as an adaptation strategy. This paper describes new methodologies for assessing ecosystem services and quantifying their values to humans, highlighting the role of ecosystem service flow analysis in optimizing the efficiency of ES provision.


Ecosystem services; Flow analysis; Bayesian modeling; Spatial analysis

Subject classification

Q01, Q54, Q55, Q57.

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