Demand for non-commodities outputs from agricultural activities: The case of mountain olive groves

Z. Kallas, J.A. Gómez-Limón, M. Arriaza, O. Nekhay


Agricultural multifunctionality is the recognition of the joint exercise of economic, environmental and social functions by this sector. In order to make this concept operative for the design of public policies, it is necessary to estimate the social demand for such functions. The main objective of this article is to present an empirical application in this line. For this purpose we have taken the agricultural system of mountain olive groves in Andalusia (Southern Spain) at risk of abandonment after the decoupling of the EU subsidies as a case study. The economic valuation technique used is the Choice Experiment. According to the results, there is a different contribution of each attribute to the improvement of the Society level of utility. Thus, and taking into account its WTP for each attribute, keeping rural population in their villages and fighting soil erosion seem to be the most valued functions by Andalusian citizens. It follows the improvement of the visual quality of the rural landscapes and the reduction of food residuals. Finally, although the results suggest a significant demand for the different functions, this demand is heterogeneous, depending on the socio-economic characteristics of the individuals.


Agricultural multifunctionality; Economic valuation; Choice experiments; Mountainolive groves; Andalusia (Spain)

Subject classification

Q18, Q11, Q25.

Full Text:



Aaker, D.A. y Day, G.S. (1986). Marketing research. John Wiley & Sons, Nueva York.

Adamowicz, W., Louviere, J. y Williams, M. (1994). «Combining revealed and stated preference methods for valuing environmental amenities». Southern Economic Journal 55(3):728-742.

Adamowicz, W., Louviere, J. y Swait, J. (1998). Introduction to attribute-based stated choice methods. US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce, Edmonton (Canadá).

Adamowicz, W., Swait, J., Boxall, P., Louviere, J. y Williams, M. (1997). «Perceptions versus objective measures of environmental quality in combined revealed and stated preference models of environmental valuation». Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 32(1):65-84.

Andreoni, J. (1989). «Giving with impure altruism: Applications to charity and Ricardian equivalence». Journal of Political Economy, 97(6):1447-1458.

Andreoni, J. (1990). «Impure Altruism and donations to public goods: A theory of warm-glow giving?» Economic Journal, 100(401):464-477.

Arriaza, M., Barea, F. y Ruiz, P. (2002). «Reforma de la OCM del aceite de oliva: hacia un sistema desacoplado de ayudas». En: Informe Anual del Sector Agrario en Andalucía 2001. Analistas Económicos de Andalucía, Málaga.

Arriaza, M., Cañas Ortega, J.F., Cañas Madueño, J.A. y Ruiz, P. (2004). «Assessing the visual quality of rural landscapes». Landscape and Urban Planning, 69(1):115-125.

Barnett, V. (1991). Sampling survey. Principles and methods. Arnold, Londres.

Bateman, I., Munro, A., Rhodes, B., Starmer, C. y Sugden, R. (1997). «Does Part-Whole Bias Exist? An Experimental Investigation». Economic Journal, 107(441):322-332.

Beaufoy, G. y Pienkowski, M. (2000). The environmental impact of olive oil production in the European Union: practical options for improving the environmental impact. European Forum on Nature Conservation and Pastoralism y Asociación para el Análisis y Reforma de la Política Agro-rural. Comisión Europea, Bruselas.

Bennett, J. y Blamey, R. (2001). The Choice modelling approach to environmental valuation. Edward Elgar publishing, Massachusetts.

Bergland, O. (1997). «Valuation of Landscape Elements Using a Contingent Choice Method». The 1997 European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists Conference, EAERE, Tilburg (Holanda).

Boxall, P., Adamowicz, W., Swait, J., Williams, M. y Louviere, J. (1996). «A comparison of stated preference methods for environmental valuation». Ecological Economics, 18(3):243-253.

Boxall, P., Engelin, J. y Adamowicz, W. (2003). «Valuing aboriginal artifacts: a combined revealed-stated preference approach». Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 45(2):213-230.

Brown, M. (1994). «What price response?» Journal of the Market Research Society, 36:227-244.

Calatrava, J. (1997). El olivar en los procesos de desarrollo rural: consideraciones sobre su valor económico total (VET). Jornadas sobre el Futuro del Olivar. Universidad Internacional de Andalucía. Baeza, agosto.

CES (2005). Informe sobre análisis y perspectivas del sector primario de la Unión Europea. Jornada de debate sobre las perspectivas del sector primario en la UE. Madrid, 22 de junio.

Colombo, S., Hanley, N. y Calatrava, J. (2005). «Designing policy for reducing the off-farm effect of soil erosion using choice experiments». Journal of Agriculture Economics, 56(1):81-95.

Conti, G. y Fagarazzi, L. (2004). «Sustainable mountain development and the key issue of abandonment of marginal rural areas». The European Journal of Planning, 1-19.

Consejería de Agricultura y Pesca (2003). El olivar andaluz. Junta de Andalucía, Sevilla. Cuesta Aguilar, M.J. (2005). «Los paisajes del olivar: un diagnóstico del estado erosivo del medio». En: Anta, J.L., Palacios, J. y Guerrero, J. (Eds) La cultura del olivo. Ecología, economía, sociedad. Universidad de Jaén, Jaén.

Daniel, T.C. y Vining, J. (1983). «Methodological Issues in the Assessment of Landscape Quality». En: Altman, I. y Wohwill, J (Eds) Behaviour and the Natural Environment. Plenum Press, Nueva York.

Dawes, R. y Corrigan, B. (1974). «Linear models in decision making». Psychological Bulletin 81(1): 95-106.

Dawes, R.M. (1979). «The robust beauty of improper linear models in decision making».American Psychology, 34(4):571-582.

Edwards, W. (1977). «Use of multi-attribute utility measurement for social decision making». En Bell, D.E., Keeney, R.L. y Raiffa, H. (eds.), Decisions. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Efron, B. y Tibshirani, R. (1993). An introduction to the bootstrap. Chapman and Hall, Nueva York.

Einhorn, H.J. y Hogart, R.M. (1975). «Unit weighting schemes of decision making». Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 13(2):171-192.

Espejo-Pérez, A.J., Rodríguez-Lizana, A., Giraldez, J.V. y Ordoñez, R. (2005). Influencia de la cubierta vegetal en la pérdida de suelo en olivar ecológico. Congreso Internacional sobre Agricultura de Conservación. Córdoba, 9-11 de noviembre.

Farmer, P.C. (1987). «Testing the robustness of multi-attribute utility theory in an applied setting ». Decision Sciences, 18(2):178-193.

Fishburn, P.C. (1982). The Foundations of Expected Utility. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht.

Franco, D., Franco, D., Mannino, I. y Zanetto, G. (2003). «The impact of agroforestry networks on scenic beauty estimation. The role of a landscape ecological network on a sociocultural process». Landscape and Urban Planning, 62:119-138.

Gallardo, R. y Ceña, F. (2004). El papel de la PAC en el proceso de cambio estructural: el caso de las zonas olivareras. V Congreso de Economía Agraria. Santiago de Compostela, 15-17 de septiembre.

Greene, W. (2000). Análisis Econométrico. Prentice-Hall, Madrid.

Guzmán Álvarez, J.R. (2004). Geografía de los paisajes del olivar andaluz. Consejería de Agricultura y Pesca, Junta de Andalucía, Sevilla.

Hall, C., McVittie, A. y Moran, D. (2004). «What does public want from agriculture and the countryside? A review of evidence and methods». Journal of Rural Studies, 20:211-225.

Haneman, W. (1984). «Welfare Evaluations in contingent valuation experiment with discrete responses». American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 66 (3):332-341.

Hanley, N., Wright, R. y Adamowicz, V. (1998). «Using choice experiments to value the Environment: Design issues, current experience and future prospects». Environmental and Resource Economics, 11(3-4):413-428.

Hanley, N., Wright, R. y Koop, G. (2002). «Modelling recreation demand using choice experiments:

climbing in Scotland». Environmental and Resource Economics, 22(3):449-466.

Hausman, J. y McFadden, D. (1984). «Specification tests for the multinomial logit model». Econometrica, 52:1219-1240.

Hensher, D.A., Rose, J.M y Greene, W.H. (2005). Applied Choice Analysis. A premier. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Hoehn, J.P. (1991). «Valuing the multidimensional impacts of environmental policy: theory and methods». American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 73(2):289-299.

Huirne, R.B.M. y Hardaker, J.B. (1998). «A multi-attribute model to optimise sow replacement decisions». European Review of Agricultural Economics, 25(4):488-505.

IESA (2004). Opinión pública, agricultura y sociedad rural en Andalucía. Instituto de Estudios Sociales de Andalucía (IESA-CSIC), Córdoba.

Keeney, R.L. y Raiffa, H. (1993). Decisions with Multiple Objectives: Preferences and Value Trade-offs. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Krinsky, I. y Robb, L. (1986). «On approximating the statistical properties of elasticities». The Review of Economics and Statistics, 68(4):715-719.

Kriström, B. y Riera, P. (1996). «Is the income elasticity of environmental improvements less than one?» Environmental and Resources Economics, 7:45-55.

Lancaster, K. (1966). «A new approach to consumer theory». Journal of Political Economy, 74:132-57.

López Cuervo, S. (1990). La erosión en los suelos agrícolas y forestales de Andalucía. Colección Congresos y Jornadas 17/1990. Consejería de Agricultura y Pesca. Junta de Andalucía, Sevilla.

Louviere, J. (1988). «Conjoint analysis modelling of stated preferences». Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 22(1):93-119.

Louviere, J., Hensher, D. y Swait, J. (2000). Stated choice models methods: Analysis and applications in Marketing, transportation and environmental valuation. Cambridge University Press, Londres.

Luce, R. (1959). Individual choice behaviour: a theoretical analysis. John Wiley and Sons, Nueva York.

Malhotra, N.K. y Birks, D.F. (1999). Marketing research. An applied Approach. Prentice Hall, London.

Mazzanti, M. (2003). «Discrete choice models and valuation experiments». Journal of Economic Studies, 30(5-6):584-604.

McFadden, D. (1974). «Conditional logit analysis of qualitative choice behavior». En: Zarembka, P. (ed.) Frontiers in econometrics. Academic Press, Nueva York.

Merritt, W., Croke, B., Saifuk, K. y Scott, A. (2005). «Estimating the effects of changing land use and management of soil loss». En: Jakeman, A.J., Letcher, R.A., Rojanasoonthon, S., Cuddy, S. y Scott, A. (Eds). Integrating knowledge for river basin management. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra.

Mitchell, R. y Carson, R. (1989). Using surveys to value public goods. Resources for the Future,


Mogas, J, Riera, P. y Bennett, J. (2005). «Accounting for afforestation externalities: a comparison of contingent valuation and choice modelling». European Environment, 15(1):44-58.

Mogas, J. y Riera, P. (2001). «Comparación de la ordenación contingente y del experimento de elección en la valoración de las funciones no privadas de los bosques». Economía Agraria y Recursos Naturales 1(2): 125-147.

Moreno, O.M. (2004). Las lecturas del enfoque de la multifuncionalidad y su concreción práctica en la agricultura española: una visión crítica. V Congreso de Economía Agraria. Santiago de Compostela, 15-17 de septiembre.

Navas, A., Machín, J. y Soto, J. (2005). «Assessing soil erosion in a Pyrenean mountain catchment using GIS and fallout 137 CS». Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 105:493-506.

OCDE (2000). Multifunctionality: Towards an Analytical Framework. OCDE, París.

OCDE (2001). Multifunctionality: Applying the OECD Analytical Framework. Guiding Policy Design. OCDE, París.

Oleaga, R. y García, T. (2006). ¿Confía en nosotros el consumidor? IV Congreso de Seguridad Alimentaria. Barcelona, 1-2 de febrero.

Ortuño, S. y Zamora, R. (2001). «Las áreas de montaña y los nuevos modelos de desarrollo rural ». Revista Española de Estudios Agrosociales y Pesqueros, 191:41-60.

Palmer, J.F. (2004). «Using spatial metrics to predict scenic perception in a changing landscape: Dennis, Massachusetts». Landscape and Urban Planning, 69:201-218.

Pastor, M., Castro, J. y Humanes, M.D. (1999). «Sistemas de manejo de suelo en olivares en pendiente. Control de la erosión». En. Cultivo de olivar en zonas de especial protección ambiental. Información Técnica 65/99. Consejería de Agricultura y Pesca. Junta de Andalucía, Sevilla.

Pearmin, D., Swanson, J., Kroes, E. y Bradely, M. (1991). Stated preference technique. A guide to practique. Steer Davies Gleave y Hague Consulting Group, Londres.

Philippidis, G. y Sanjuán, A.I. (2004). Percepción de los consumidores de la Cuenca del Mediterráneo hacia los alimentos ligados al territorio. V Congreso de Economía Agraria. Santiago de Compostela, 15-17 de septiembre.

Randall, A. (2002). «Valuing the outputs of multifunctional agriculture». European Review of Agriculture Economics, 29(3):289-307.

Raymond, J., Florax, G.M., Travisi, C.M. y Nijkamp, P. (2005). «A meta-analysis of the willingness to pay for reductions in pesticide risk exposure». European Review of Agriculture Economics, 32:441-467.

Real, E., Arce, C. y Sabucedo, J. (2000). «Classification of landscapes using quantitative and categorical data, and prediction of their scenic beauty in North-Western Spain». Journal of Environmental Psychology, 20:355-373.

Schmitz, M.F., Aranzabal, I.D., Aguilera, P., Rescia, A. y Pineda, F.D. (2003). «Relationship between landscape typology and socioeconomic structure. Scenarios of change in Spanish cultural landscapes». Ecological Modeling, 168:343-356.

Swait, J. y Adamowicz, W. (2001). «Choice environment, market complexity and consumer behaviour: a theoretical and empirical approach for incorporating decision complexity into models of consumer choice». Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 86(2):141-167.

Tebruegge, F. (2005). Conservation soil tillage as a tool for erosion control. Congreso Internacional sobre Agricultura de Conservación. Córdoba, 9-11 de noviembre.

Thurstone, L. (1927). «A law of comparative judgement». Psychological Review, 34:273-286.

Tobarra, P. y Martínez, C. (1998). «Gestión eficiente del agua o desertificación: el caso de Lorca». Economía Agraria, 183:253-272.

Viladomiu, L. y Rosell, J. (2004). «Olive oil production and the rural economy of Spain». En: Brouwer, F. (Ed) Sustaining agriculture and the rural environment, governance, policy and multifunctionality. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham.

Abstract Views

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

 Universitat Politècnica de València

e-ISSN: 2174-7350   ISSN: 1578-0732