Symmetric Bombay topology


  • Giuseppe Di Maio Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli
  • Somashekhar Naimpally
  • Enrico Meccariello Università del Sannio



The subject of hyperspace topologies on closed or closed and compact subsets of a topological space X began in the early part of the last century with the discoveries of Hausdorff metric and Vietoris hit-and-miss topology. In course of time, several hyperspace topologies were discovered either for solving some problems in Applied or Pure Mathematics or as natural generalizations of the existing ones. Each hyperspace topology can be split into a lower and an upper part. In the upper part the original set inclusion of Vietoris was generalized to proximal set inclusion. Then the topologization of the Wijsman topology led to the upper Bombay topology which involves two proximities. In all these developments the lower topology, involving intersection of finitely many open sets, was generalized to locally finite families but intersection was left unchanged. Recently the authors studied symmetric proximal topology in which proximity was used for the first time in the lower part replacing intersection with its generalization: nearness. In this paper we use two proximities also in the lower part and we obtain the lower Bombay hypertopology. Consequently, a new hypertopology arises in a natural way: the symmetric Bombay topology which is the join of a lower and an upper Bombay topology.


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Author Biographies

Giuseppe Di Maio, Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli

Facoltà di Scienze, Dipartimento di Matematica

Enrico Meccariello, Università del Sannio

Facoltà di Ingegneria


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How to Cite

G. Di Maio, S. Naimpally, and E. Meccariello, “Symmetric Bombay topology”, Appl. Gen. Topol., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 109–132, Apr. 2008.



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