Effect of diet supplementation with live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on growth performance, caecal ecosystem and health of growing rabbits
Keywords:live yeast, digestive physiology, growth, fattening rabbit
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the growth performance, caecal ecosystem and overall health of growing rabbits. A control diet was formulated (crude protein: 15.9%; neutral detergent fibre: 31.6%) and another diet obtained by supplementing the control diet with 1 g of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (6.5×109 colony-forming units) per kg of diet. Ninety 35-d old rabbits were allotted into 3 groups: TT (rabbits offered the supplemented diet from 17 d of age onwards), CT (rabbits offered supplemented diet from 35 d) and CC (rabbits fed non-supplemented diet). Body weight (BW) and feed intake were measured weekly and mortality was controlled daily. At 35, 42 and 77 d of age, 6 rabbits from each group were slaughtered and digestive physiological traits, serum clinical chemistry parameters, fermentation traits, and the composition of caecal microbiota examined. At 42 and 56 d of age, 10 rabbits from each group were injected intraperitoneally with 100 μg/animal of ovalbumin and blood samples were collected for examination of plasma immunological parameters. Throughout the experiment (5-11 wk), weight gain and feed intake (37.8 and 112.6 g/d, on av.) were not affected by yeast, except for weight gain in the first week after weaning, which was the highest in TT animals among the 3 groups (48.1 vs. 43.9 and 44.2 g/d for TT, CC and CT, respectively; P=0.012). This may be due to the increased trend in feed intake (P=0.072) in the TT group (96.4 g/d) compared to the others. Mortality (5/90) was low and did not differ among the 3 groups. Treatments had no effect on slaughter traits at the 3 sampling dates (35, 42 and 77 d). Only the weight of the empty caecum (% BW) was higher (P=0.02) in CC (2.2%) and CT (2.3%) than in TT group (1.8%) at 77 d of age. Treatments did not overtly affect the caecal microbiota, although the number of total anaerobic bacteria and Bacteroides were lower (108 and 107/g caecal digesta, respectively) in rabbits from CC group compared to those of CT and TT groups at 42 d of age (P=0.03). No difference between groups was observed for caecal short chain fatty acids profile, blood traits, or IgG and cytokine profile. In conclusion, supplementation of feed with yeast did not modify growth traits and resulted in only a temporary increase in weight gain and a slightly altered caecal microbiota after weaning.
AFNOR, 2009. European standard EN 15789, Isolation and enumeration of yeast probiotic strains. 1-17.
AOAC, 2000. Official Methods of Analysis, 17th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.
Archetti I., Tittarelli C., Cerioli M., Brivio R., Grilli G., Lavazza A., 2008. Serum chemistry and hematology values in commercial rabbits: preliminary data from industrial farms in northern Italy. 9th World Rabbit Congress, June 10-13, Verona, Italy, 1147-1152.
Bónai A., Szendrő Zs., Matics Zs., Fébel H., Pósa R., Tornyos G., Horn P., Kovács F., Kovács M. 2008. Effect of Bacillus cereus var. toyoi on caecal microflora and fermentation in rabbits. In:Proceedings of the 9th World Rabbit Congress, June 10-13, Verona, Italy, 561-565.
Bovera F., Nizza S., Marono S., Mallardo K., Piccolo G., Tudisco R., De Martino L., Nizza A. 2010. Effect of mannan oligosaccharides on rabbit performance, digestibility and rectal bacterial anaerobic populations during an episode of epizootic rabbit enteropathy. World Rabbit Sci., 18: 9-16. doi:10.4995/wrs.2010.18.02
Bovera F., Lestingi A., Iannaccone F., Tateo A., Nizza A. 2012a. Use of dietary mannanoligosaccharides during rabbit fattening period: Effects on growth performance, feed nutrient digestibility, carcass traits, and meat quality. J. Anim. Sci., 90: 3858-3866. doi:10.2527/jas.2011-4119
Bovera F., Lestingi A., Marono S., Iannaccone F., Nizza S., Mallardo K., de Martino L., Tateo A. 2012b. Effect of dietary mannanoligosaccharides on in vivo performance, nutrient digestibility and caecal content characteristics of growing rabbits. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 96: 130-136. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0396.2011.01134.x
Carabaño R., Badiola I., Licois D., Gidenne T. 2006. The digestive ecosystem and its control through nutritional feeding strategies. In: Recent Advances in Rabbit Sciences (Maerten L. and Coudert P.), 211-227.
Chaudhary L.C., Singh R., Kamra D.N., Pathak N.N. 1995. Effect of oral administration of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on digestibility and growth performance of rabbits fed diets of different fibre content. World Rabbit Sci., 3: 15-18. doi:10.4995/wrs.1995.235
Djeraba A., Quere P. 2000. In vivo macrophage activation in chickens with Acemannan, a complex carbohydrate extracted from Aloe vera. Int. J. Immunopharmaco., 22: 365-372. doi:10.1016/S0192-0561(99)00091-0
Ewuola E.O., Egbunike G.N. 2008. Haematological and serum biochemical response of growing rabbit bucks fed dietary fumonisin B1. Afri. J. Biotechnol., 7: 4304-4309.
Falcão-e-Cunha L., Castro-Solla L., Maertens L., Marounek M., Pinheiro V., Freire J., Mourão J.L. 2007. Alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in rabbit feeding: a review. World Rabbit Sci., 15: 127-140. doi:10.4995/wrs.2007.597
Fortun-Lamothe L., Boullier S. 2007. A review on the interactions between gut microflora and digestive mucosal immunity. Possible ways to improve the health of rabbits. Livest. Sci., 107: 1-18. doi:10.1016/j.livsci.2006.09.005
García J., Gidenne T., Falcão-e-Cunha L., De Blas C. 2002. Identification of the main factors that influence caecal fermentation traits in growing rabbits. Anim. Res., 51: 165-173. doi:10.1051/animres:2002011
Gidenne T., Bennegadi-Laurent N., Bayourthe C., Monteils V., Fonty G. 2006. Post-weaning maturation of rabbit caecal microbial communities: impact of live yeast intake. In: Louis, P., Flint, H.J. (Eds.), Rowet Research Institute - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique Conference, 5th Biennial Meeting Aberdeen, Scotland.
Gidenne T., Combes S., Licois D., Carabaño R., Badiola I., García J. 2008. The caecal ecosystem and the nutrition of the rabbit: interaction with digestive health. INRA Productions Animales. 21: 239-249.
Gouet Ph., Fonty G. 1979. Changes in the digestive microflora of holoxenic * rabbits from birth until adulthood. Ann. Biol. Anim. Bioch. Biophys., 19: 553-566. doi:10.1051/rnd:19790501
Haghighi H.R., Grong J., Gyles C.L., Hayes M.A., Sanei B., Parvizi P., Gisavi H., Chambers J.R., Sharif S. 2005. Modulation of Antibody-Mediated Immune Response by Probiotics in Chickens. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol., 12: 1387-1392. doi:10.1128/cdli.12.12.1387-1392.2005
Hollister A.G., Cheeke P.R., Robinson K.L., Patton N.M. 1990. Effects of dietary probiotics and acidifiers on performance of weanling rabbits. J. Appl. Rabbit. Res., 13: 6-9.
Jerome N., Mousset J.L., Lebas F., Robart P. 1996. Effect of diet supplementation with oxytetracycline combined or not with different feed-additives on fattening performance in the rabbit. 6th World Rabbit Congress, July 9-12, 1996, Toulouse, France, 205-210.
Kermauner A., Struklec M. 1996. Addition of probiotic to feeds with different energy and ADF content in rabbits. 1. Effect on the digestive organs. World Rabbit Sci., 4: 187-193. doi:10.4995/wrs.1996.293
Kimsé M., Bayourthe C. Monteils V., Fortun-Lamothe L.,Cauquil L., Combes S., Gidenne T. 2012. Live yeast stability in rabbit digestive tract: Consequences on the caecal ecosystem, digestion, growth and digestive health. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 173: 235-243. doi:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2012.01.012
Maertens L., De Groote G. 1992. Effect of dietary supplementation of live yeast on the zootechnical performances of does and weanling rabbits. J. Appl. Rabbit Res., 15: 1079-1086.
Maertens L., Van Renterghem R., De Groote G. 1994. Effects of dietary inclusion of Paciflor R (Bacillus Cip 5832) on the milk composition and performances of does and caecal and growth parameters of their weanlings. World Rabbit Sci., 2: 67-73.
Mertens D.R. 2002. Gravimetric determination of amylase-treated neutral detergent fibre in feeds with refluxing beakers or crucibles: collaborative study. J. AOAC Int. 85: 1217-1240.
Onifade A.A., Obiyan R.I., Onipede E., Adejumo D.O., Abu O.A., Babatunde G.M. 1999. Assessment of the effects of supplementing rabbit diet with a culture of “Saccharomyces cerevisiae” using growth performance, blood composition and clinical enzyme activities. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 77: 25-32. doi:10.1016/S0377-8401(98)00244-2
Özsoy B., Yalçin S. 2011. The effects of dietary supplementation of yeast culture on performance, blood parameters and immune system in broiler turkeys. Ankara Üniv. Vet. Fak. Derg., 58: 117-122. doi:10.1501/Vetfak_0000002460
Paryad A., Mahmoudi M. 2008. Effect of different levels of supplemental yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on performance, blood constituents and carcass characteristics of broiler chicks. Afr. J. Agr. Res., 3: 835-842.
Rotolo L., Gai F., Peiretti P.G., Ortoffi M., Zoccarato I., Gasco L. 2014. Live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii) supplementation in fattening rabbit diet: effect on productive, performance and meat quality. Livest. Sci., 162: 178-184. doi:10.1016/j.livsci.2014.01.022
Rozen S., Skaletsky H. 2000. Primer3 on the WWW for general users and for biologist programmers. Methods Mol. Biol., 132: 365-386.
Seljelid R., Rasmussen L.T., Larm O., Hoffman J. 1987. The protective effect of beta 1–3d-glucan-derivatized plastic beads against Escherichia coli infection in mice. Scand. J. Immunol. 25: 55-60. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3083.1987.tb01046.x
Seyidoğlu N., Galip N. 2014. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Spirulina platensis on Growth Performances and Biochemical Parameters in Rabbits. Kafkas Univ. Vet. Fak. Derg., 20: 331-336. doi:10.9775/kvfd.2013.9988
Shanmuganathan T., Samarasinghe K., Wenk C. 2004. Supplemental Enzymes, Yeast Culture and Effective Microorganism Culture to Enhance the Performance of Rabbits Fed Diets Containing High Levels of Rice Bran. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 17: 678-683.
Shen Y.B., Piao X.S., Kim S.W., Wang L., Liu P., Yoon I., Zhen Y.G. 2009. Effects of yeast culture supplementation on growth performance, intestinal health, and immune response of nursery pigs. J. Anim. Sci., 87: 2614-2624. doi:10.2527/jas.2008-1512
Trocino A., Xiccato G., Carraro L., Jiménez G. 2005. Effect of diet supplementation with toyocerin® (Bacillus cereus var. toyoi) on performance and health of growing rabbits. World Rabbit Sci., 13: 17-28.
Yu L., Pragay D.A., Chang D., Wicher K. 1979. Biochemical Parameters of Normal Rabbit Serum. Clin. Biochem., 12: 83- 87. doi:10.1016/S0009-9120(79)80071-5
This journal is licensed under a "Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)".