Enterococci from pannon white rabbits: detection, identification, biofilm and screening for virulence factors


  • Andrea Lauková Centre of Biosciences of the Slovak Academy of Sciences
  • Viola Strompfová Centre of Biosciences of the Slovak Academy of Sciences
  • Renata Szabóová University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Košice
  • András Bónai Káposvár University
  • Zsolt Matics Káposvár University
  • Melinda Kovács Káposvár University
  • Monika Pogány Simonová Institute of Animal Physiology in Košice. Department of Physiology, Laboratory of Animal Microbiology




Pannon White, identification, enterococci, properties, rabbits


Properties of enterococci isolated from the Hungarian breed Pannon White were studied to spread knowledge regarding the properties of microbiota in rabbits from the basic research standpoint and to select a beneficial candidate for application in husbandry. Faeces from 113 Pannon White rabbits (mostly maternal line and some paternal line) were collected. They were sampled from rabbits varying in age and sex (82 kits, 6 does, 6 bucks, 19 adult rabbits), which were aged 2 wk (14 suckling rabbits), 6 and 8 wk (68 weaning and post-weaning rabbits), adult rabbits (31, one year). Faecal mixtures were sampled into sterile packs with faeces from 5-6 animals in each. The total count of enterococci from these Pannon White rabbits reached, on av. 5.28±0.29 colony forming units/g (log10). Among the 19 enterococci, 14 E. faecalis and 5 E. faecium were detected using 3 identification methods. The enterococci were mostly resistant to antibiotics. They were non-haemolytic, Dnase and urease negative. They did not form biofilm. They were free of the hylEfm gene and IS16 genes; the most frequently detected genes were gelE, efaAfm, efaAfs. Based on these results, E. faecium EF9a was selected for further analysis.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Andrea Lauková, Centre of Biosciences of the Slovak Academy of Sciences

Institute of Animal Physiology in Košice. Department of Physiology, Laboratory of Animal Microbiology

Viola Strompfová, Centre of Biosciences of the Slovak Academy of Sciences

Institute of Animal Physiology in Košice. Department of Physiology, Laboratory of Animal Microbiology

Renata Szabóová, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Košice

Department of pathological physiology

András Bónai, Káposvár University

Faculty of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences

Zsolt Matics, Káposvár University

Faculty of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences

Melinda Kovács, Káposvár University

Faculty of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences

Monika Pogány Simonová, Institute of Animal Physiology in Košice. Department of Physiology, Laboratory of Animal Microbiology

Centre of Biosciences of the Slovak Academy of Sciences


Bagóne Vántus V., Dalle Zotte A., Cullere M., Bónai A., Dal Bosco A., Szendro Zs., Tornyos G., Pósa R., Bóta B., Kovács M., Zsolnai A. 2018. Quantitative PCR with 16S rRNA-genetargeted specific primers for analysis of caecal microbial community in growing rabbits after dietary supplementation of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and spirulina (Arthrospira platensis). Ital. J. Anim. Sci., 17: 657-665.

Bino E., Lauková A., Kandričáková A., Nemcová R. 2018. Assessment of biofilm formation by faecal strains of Enterococcus hirae from different species of animals. Polish J. Vet. Sci., 21: 747-754. https://doi.org/10.24425/124314

Bruker Daltonics Biotyper 2.0.2011. Software for microorganisms

identification and classification user manual.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). 2012. In Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility T; Approved Standards-Eleventh Edition CLSI=NCCLS M02-A11. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, Pensylvania 19087, USA.

Dalle Zotte A. 2002. Perception of rabbit meat quality and major factors influencing the rabbit carcass and meat quality. Liv. Prod. Sci., 75: 11-32.


De Vos P., Garrity G.M., Jones D., Krieg, N.R., Ludwig, W., Rainey, F.A., Schleifer, K.-H., Whitman, W. (eds). 2009. Bergeys Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Vol.3 Firmicutes. New York: Springer.

Foulquié Moreno M.R., Sarantinopoulos P., Tsakalidou E., De Vuyst L. 2006. The role and application of enterococci in food and health. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 106: 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2005.06.026

Freeman D.J., Falkiner F.R., Keane C.T. 1989. New method for detecting slime production by coagulasenegative staphylococci. J. Clin. Pathol., 42: 872-874. https://doi.org/10.1136/jcp.42.8.872

Huys G., D’Haene K., Collard J.M., Swings J. 2004. Prevalence and Molecular characterization of tetracycline resistance in Enterococcus isolates from food. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 3: 1555-1562. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.70.3.1555-1562.2004

Chrastinová Ľ., Chrenková M., Polačiková M., Lauková A., Simonová M., Szabóová R., Strompfová V., Ondruška Ľ., Chlebec I., Párkanyi V., Rafay J., Vasilková Z. 2010. Influence of selected phytoadditives and probiotics on zootechnical Performance, caecal parameters and meat quality of rabbits. Arch. Zootech., 13: 30- 35.

Kanemitsu K., Nishino T., Kurushima H., Okamura N., Takemura H., Yamamoto H., Kahu M. 2001. Quantitative detection of gelatinase activity among enterococci. J. Microbiol. Meth., 47: 11-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-7012(01)00283-4

Kandričáková A., Lauková A., Strompfová V. 2015. Characteristic and susceptibility to enterocins of enterococci in pheasants possessing virulence factor genes. Polish J. Vet. Sci., 18: 507-514. https://doi.org/10.1515/pjvs-2015-0066

Kayaoglu G., Orstavik D. 2004. Virulence factors of Enterococcus faecalis: relationship to endodontic disease. Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med., 15: 308-320. https://doi.org/10.1177/154411130401500506

Kubašová I., Strompfová V., Lauková A. 2017. Safety assessment of commensal enterococci from dogs. Folia Microbiol., 62: 491-498. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12223-017-0521-z

Latasa C., Solano C., Penades J.R., Lasa I. 2006. Biofilmassociated proteins. C. R. Biol., 329: 849-857. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crvi.2006.07.008

Lauková A. 1995. Characteristics of streptococci and enterococci isolated from rumen of mouflons and European bisons. Asian Austral. J. Anim., 8: 37-41. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.1995.37

Lauková A. 1999. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolates from rumen content of deer. Microbios, 97: 95-101.

Lauková A., Bomba A., Kmeť V. 1990. Enterococcus occurrence and urease activity in rumen content of claves after dieteticomicrobial stimulation. (in Slovak) Anim. Prod. (Czech), 11: 971-975.

Lauková A., Simonová M., Strompfová V., Štyriak I., Ouwehand A.O., Várady M. 2008. Potential of enterococci isolated from horses. Anaerobe, 14: 234-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anaerobe.2008.04.002

Lauková A., Chrastinová Ľ., Pogány Simonová M., Strompfová V., Plachá I., Čobanová K., Formelová Z., Chrenková M., Ondruška Ľ. 2012. Enterococcus faecium AL41: Its Enterocin M and their beneficial use in rabbits husbandry. Prob. Antimicro. Prot., 4: 243-249. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12602-012-9118-7

Lauková A., Strompfová V., Kandričáková A., Ščerbová J., Semedo-Lemsaddek T., Miltko R., Belzecki G. 2015. Virulence factors genes in enterococci isolated from beavers (Castor fiber). Folia Microbiol., 60: 151-154. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12223-014-0357-8

Lauková A., Kandričáková A., Ščerbová J., Strompfová V. 2016. Enterococci isolated from farm ostriches and their relation to enterocins. Folia Microbiol., 61: 275-281.


Lauková A., Pogány Simonová M., Chrastinová Ľ., Gancarčíková S., Kandričáková A., Plachá I., Chrenková M., Formelová Z., Ondruška Ľ., Ščerbová J., Strompfová V. 2018. Assessment of lantibiotic type bacteriocin gallidermin application in model experiment with broiler rabbits. Int. J. Anim. Sci., 2: 1028.

Linaje J., Coloma M.D., Pérez-Martínez G., Zuniga M. 2004. Characterization of faecal enterococci from rabbits for selection of probiotic strains. J. Appl. Microbiol., 96: 761-771. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2004.02191.x

Marounek M., Březina P., Baran M. 2000. Fermentation of carbohydrates and yield of microbial protein in mixed cultures of rabbit caecal microorganisms. Arch. Anim. Nutr., 53: 241-252. https://doi.org/10.1080/17450390009381950

Pogány Simonová M., Lauková A., Plachá I., Čobanová K., Strompfová V., Szabóová R., Chrastinová Ľ. 2013. Can enterocins affect phagocytosis and gluthationperoxidase in rabbits? Cent. Eur. J. Biol., 8: 730-734.

Pogány Simonová M., Lauková A. 2017. Virulence factor genes possessing Enterococcus faecalis from rabbits and their sensitivity to enterocins. World Rabbit Sci., 25: 63-71. https://doi.org/10.4995/wrs.2017.5694

Ribeiro T., Oliveira M., Fraqueza M.J., Lauková A., Elias M., Tenreiro R., Barreto A.S., Semedo-Lemsaddek T. 2011. Antibiotic resistance and virulence factors among Enterococci isolated from chourico, a traditional Portuguesee dry fermented sausage. J. Food Prot., 74: 465-469.


Rice L.B., Eliopoulos G.M., Wennerstein C.H., Goldman D, Jacoby G.A., Moellering R.C. jr. 1991. Chromosomally mediated beta-lactamase production and gentamicin resistance in Enterococcus faecalis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 2: 272-276. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.35.2.272

Semedo T., Santos M.A., Lopes M.F., Figueirdo Marques J.J., Barreto Crespo M.T., Tenreiro R. 2003. Virulence factors in food, clinical and reference Enterococci: a common trait in the genus? Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 26: 13-22. https://doi.org/10.1078/072320203322337263

Simonová M., Lauková A. 2004. Isolation of faecal Enterococcus faecium strains from rabbits and their sensitivity to antibiotics and ability to bacteriocin production. Bull. Vet. Inst. Pulawy, 48: 383-386.

Simonová M., Lauková A., Štyriak, I. 2005. Enterococci from rabbits-potential feed additive. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 50: 416-421. https://doi.org/10.17221/4221-CJAS

Simonová M., Lauková A. 2007. Bacteriocin activity of enterococci from rabbits. Vet. Res Com., 31: 143-152. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11259-006-3411-4