The effect of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) bean extract on male New Zealand White rabbit semen
Keywords:carob, rabbit, sperm parameters, reproduction, testosterone
The carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua) grows naturally in the Mediterranean region. The empiric use of carob cures for their aphrodisiac properties is very common in Turkey. Thus, the experiment was conducted to determine the effects of carob bean extracts on some reproductive parameters in male New Zealand White rabbits. During the adaptation period (stage 1), 6-8 mo old rabbits were trained in semen collection for 30 d. At the beginning of the treatment period (stage 2), rabbits were assigned randomly to 2 groups of 8 animals each. For a period of 49 d (1 spermatogenesis duration), one group was treated with a daily oral dose (10 mL) of carob extract and the other group received the corresponding volume of tap water. Semen was collected weekly. Semen samples taken at week 1 and 7 were analysed separately. At the beginning of stage 2, no differences were observed in the volume and pH of the ejaculate, sperm concentration, percentage of motility, percentage of live spermatozoa, percentage of sperm plasma membrane integrity, plasma concentration of testosterone, and seminal plasma protein levels between the control and carob extract treated animals. Similarly, at the end of stage 2, there were no differences in the volume and pH of the ejaculate, motility percentage, the percentage of live spermatozoa, percentage of sperm plasma membrane integrity, and the seminal plasma protein levels between the control and the carob extract treated animals. However, sperm concentration (P<0.05), plasma concentration of testosterone (P<0.05), and percentage of change in spermatozoa concentration (P<0.02) between groups were affected at the end of stage 2. The data suggested that the use of carob cures prepared by boiling carob fruit could have beneficial influences on sperm concentration in rabbits.
Abd El-Ghany M.A. 2007. The relation of antioxidants and sodium nitrite on the oxidation reduction system and reproductive ability of male rats. Egypt J. Nutr., 2: 33-64.
Agnes V.F., Akbarsha M.A. 2003. Spermatotoxic effect of aflatoxin B1 in the albino Mouse. Food. Chem. Tox., 41: 119-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0278-6915(02)00171-0
Amico F.P., Source E.G. 1997. Medical plants and phytotheraphy in Mussomeli area (Caltenisseta, Scily, Italy). Fitoterapia, 68: 143-159.
Ata A., Hatipoglu F.S., Yildiz-Gulay O., Gulay M.S. 2007. Protective role of ascorbic acid on subacute sperm toxicity in male New Zealand White Rabbits treated with endosulfan. Drug Chem. Toxicol., 30: 181-195. https://doi.org/10.1080/01480540701374896
Ayaz F.A., Torun H., Ayaz S., Correia P.J., Alaiz M., Sanz C., Gruz J., Strand M. 2007. Determination of chemical composition of Anatolian carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua L.), Sugars, amino and organic acids, minerals and phenolic compounds. J. Food Quality, 30: 1040-1055. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4557.2007.00176.x
Feng P., Li TL., Guan Z.X., Franklin R.B., Costello L.C. 2002. Direct effect of zinc on mitochondrial apoptogenesis in prostate cells. Prostate, 52: 311-318. https://doi.org/10.1002/pros.10128
Hala M.A.W. 2011. Protective effect of Nigella sativa, linseed and celery oil against testicular toxicity induced by sodium valproate in male rats. J. Am. Sci., 7: 687-693.
Inouce M., Suzuki R., Koide T., Sakaguchi N., Ogihera Y., Yabu Y. 1994. Antioxidant, gallic acid, induces apaptosis in HL- 60RG cells. Biochem. Res. Commun., 204: 898-904. https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1994.2544
Karkacier M., Artik N. 1995. Determination of physical properties, chemical composition and extraction conditions of carob bean (Ceratonia siliqua L.). Gida, 20: 131-136.
Katsiya G.V., Todua T.N., Gorlushkin V.M., Chirkov A.M., Goncharov N.P. 1989. Effect of immobilization stress on the gonadotropic function of the hypophysis in male hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas). Biol. Medit., 107: 231-234.
Marakis S. 1996. Carob bean in food and feed: current status and future potentials: a critical appraisal. J. Food Sci. Technol., 33: 365-383.
Merzouki A., Ed-Derfoufi F., El Allau A., Molero-Mesas J. 1997. Wild medicinal plants used by local Bouhmed population (Morocco). Fitoterapia, 68: 444-460.
Rickard I.J., Holopainen J., Helama S., Helle S., Russell A.F., Lummaa V. 2010. Food availability at birth limited reproductive success in historical humans. Ecology, 91: 3515-3525. https://doi.org/10.1890/10-0019.1
Robbins W.A., Xun L., FitzGerald L.Z., Esguerra S., Henning S.M., Carpenter C.L. 2012. Walnuts Improve Semen Quality in Men Consuming a Western-Style Diet: Randomized Control Dietary Intervention Trial. Biol. Reprod., 87: 101-108. https://doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.112.101634
Osaretin A.T., Gabriel A.A. 2008. Effect of zinc deficiency on memory, oxidative stress and blood chemistry in rats. Adv. Med. Dent. Sci., 2: 74-82.
Saracoglu A.I. 2011. Şifa Kitabı, 1st ed. Haygrup Publishers, Istanbul, Turkey.
Takeda A., Tamano H., Tochigi M. 2005. Zinc homeostasis in the hypocampus of zinc deficient young adult rats. J. Neurochem. Int., 46: 221-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2004.10.003
Tokeshi I., Yoshimoto T., Muto N., Nakamura S., Ashizawa K., Nakada T., Tatemoto H. 2007. Antihyaluronidase action of ellagic acid effectively prevents polyspermy as a result of suppression of the acrosome reaction induced by sperm-zona interaction during in vitro fertilization of porcine oocytes. J. Reprod. Develop., 53: 755-764. https://doi.org/10.1262/jrd.18173
Turk G., Sonmez M., Aydin M., Yuce A., Gur S., Yuksel M., Aksu E.H., Aksoy H. 2008. Effects of pomegranate juice consumption on sperm quality, spermatogenic cell density, antioxidant activity and testosterone level in male rats. Clin. Nutr., 27: 289-296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2007.12.006
Würsch P. 1979. Influence of tannin-rich carob pod fiber on the cholesterol metabolism in the rat. J. Nutr., 109: 685-692. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/109.4.685
Zago M.P., Oteiza P.I. 2001. The antioxidant properties of zinc: interactions with iron and antioxidants. Free Rad. Biol. Med., 31: 266-274. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5849(01)00583-4
This journal is licensed under a "Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)".