Contribution of off-farm employment to income of indigenous and mestizo households in the Ecuadorian Amazon

Cristian Vasco, Richard Bilsborrow


This study examines the process of income diversification among indigenous and mestizo households settled in one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots. The results of a random-effect tobit model show that agricultural wage work is the principal income source for homes with scarce or no land. Self-employment employs households with low endowments of education but high endowments of capital. Non-agricultural wage income absorbs educated individuals either indigenous or mestizo.


Amazon, Ecuador, off-farm employment, nonfarm employment.

Subject classification

Q12, O13, R11.

Full Text:



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